Ketoconazole was patented in 1977 by the Belgian pharmaceutical company Janssen and came into medical use in 1981. It is available as a generic medication, and formulations that are applied to the skin are over the counter in the United Kingdom
In 2019, it was the 171st most commonly prescribed medication in the United States,
with more than 3 million prescriptions
The formulation that is taken by mouth was withdrawn in the European Union and in Australia in 2013, and in China in 2015. In addition, its use was restricted in the United States and Canada in 2013
Antiandrogen And Antifungal
Ketoconazole, sold under the brand name Nizoral among others, is an antiandrogen and antifungal medication used to treat a number of fungal infections.
Applied to the skin, it is used for fungal skin infections such as tinea, cutaneous candidiasis,
pityriasis versicolor, dandruff, and seborrheic dermatitis.
Taken by mouth, it is a less preferred option and only recommended for severe infections when other agents cannot be used.
Other uses include treatment of excessive male-patterned hair growth in women and Cushing's syndrome
Common Side Effects
Common side effects, when applied to the skin, include redness. When taken by mouth, it includes nausea, headache, and liver problems.
Potential Death Or Liver Transplantation
Liver problems may result in death or the need for liver transplantation.
Other severe side effects, when taken by mouth, include QT prolongation, adrenocortical insufficiency, and anaphylaxis.
It is an imidazole and works by hindering the production of ergosterol required for the fungal cell membrane, thereby slowing growth.